Bibliography (links where available)

Sources Cited in We Want to Believe

Anselm, Proslogion: With the Replies of Gaunilo and Anselm (trans. T. Williams; Indianapolis: Hackett, 2001)

Karen Armstrong, A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (New York: Ballantine, 1993)

Augustine, Confessions (trans. R. S. Pine-Coffin; London/New York: Penguin, 1961)

Augustine, Sermons (20–50) on the Old Testament (trans. E. Hill; The Works of Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century III/2; Hyde Park, New York: New City, 1990)

Bible versions (

Thomas Bertonneau and Kim Paffenroth, The Truth Is Out There: Christian Faith and the Classics of TV Science Fiction (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos, 2006)

Ian Caddell, “Vision Quest,” Reel West (October/November 1994)

Max Allan Collins, The X-Files: I Want to Believe (based on the screenplay by Frank Spotnitz and Chris Carter; New York: HarperEntertainment, 2008)

Jan Delasara, PopLit, PopCult, and “The X-Files”: A Critical Exploration (Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland, 2000)

Amy M. Donaldson, “The Last Temptation of Mulder: Reading The X-Files through the Christological Lens of Nikos Kazantzakis,” in “The X-Files” and Literature: Unweaving the Story, Unraveling the Lie to Find the Truth (ed. Sharon R. Yang; Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007) (pdf including first 3 pages of the article)

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov; D. McDuff translation (rev. ed.; London: Penguin, 2003); C. Garnett translation (1912); “The Grand Inquisitor” (Garnett trans.)

Millard J. Erickson, What Does God Know and When Does He Know It? The Current Controversy over Divine Foreknowledge (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003)

Richard Flannery and David Louzecky, “Postdemocratic Society and the Truth Out There,” in The Philosophy of “The X-Files” (ed. Dean A. Kowalski; updated ed.; The Philosophy of Popular Culture; Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009); 2007 edition

Stephen W. Hawking with Leonard Mlodinow, A Briefer History of Time (New York: Bantam, 2005)

Stephen W. Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, The Grand Design (New York: Bantam, 2010)

Arthur F. Holmes, All Truth is God’s Truth (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977)

Howard P. Kainz, Natural Law: An Introduction and Re-examination (Chicago: Open Court, 2004)

Dean A. Kowalski, ed., The Philosophy of “The X-Files” (updated ed.; Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009); 2007 edition

C. S. Lewis, The Four Loves (1960; repr., New York: Harcourt Brace, 1988)

Brian Lowry, Trust No One: The Official Third Season Guide to “The X-Files” (New York: HarperCollins, 1996)

Eileen Meehan, “Not Your Parents’ FBI: The X-Files and ‘Jose Chung’s From Outer Space,’” in The Postmodern Presence: Readings on Postmodernism in American Culture and Society (ed. Alan A. Berger; Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira, 1998)

Gabriel McKee, The Gospel according to Science Fiction: From the Twilight Zone to the Final Frontier (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2007)

Blaise Pascal, Pensées (trans. A. J. Krailsheimer; rev. ed.; London/New York: Penguin, 1995)

Paul C. Peterson, “Religion in The X-Files,” Journal of Media and Religion 1 (2002): 181–96

John J. Pierce, “The Spiritual Journey of Fox Mulder,” Spectrum 8 (1997): 2–9

Rhett and Link, “I Want to Believe: X-Files Love Song” (

J. W. Robbins, "Introduction: After the Death of God" in J. D. Caputo and G. Vattimo, After the Death of God (ed. J. W. Robbins; Chichester, NY: Columbia University Press, 2007)

Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York: Random House, 1995)

Anne Simon, The Real Science Behind “The X-Files”: Microbes, Meteorites, and Mutants (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999)

Huston Smith, Why Religion Matters: The Fate of the Human Spirit in an Age of Disbelief (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2001)

Russ Spencer, “A Close Encounter with Chris Carter,” (April 28, 2000)

“Threads of the Mythology,” “The X-Files” Mythology, 4 vols., DVD (Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2005); transcript

Jacques Vallee, Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact (New York: Ballantine, 1988)

Paula Vitaris, “David Duchovny on ‘The Unnatural’ and ‘Hollywood A.D.’,” Morgan and Wong On-Line (2004)

Paula Vitaris, “David Duchovny’s Grace Notes: Creating Episodes That Re-Think The X-Files,” Cinefantastique 34, no. 2 (April 2002): 54–55

Robert Westerfelhaus and Teresa A. Combs, “Criminal Investigations and Spiritual Quests: The X-Files as an Example of Hegemonic Concordance in a Mass-Mediated Society,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 22 (1998): 205–20

V. Alan White, “Freedom and Worldviews in The X-Files,” in The Philosophy of “The X-Files” (ed. Dean A. Kowalski; updated ed.; The Philosophy of Popular Culture; Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009); 2007 edition

Rhonda Wilcox and J. P. Williams, “‘What Do You Think?’: The X-Files, Liminality, and Gender Pleasure,” in “Deny All Knowledge”: Reading “The X-Files” (ed. D. Lavery et al.; Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996)

Karen Wolf, “‘Whosoever Believeth’: Rereading the Bible through The X-Files,” in “The X-Files” and Literature: Unweaving the Story, Unraveling the Lie to Find the Truth (ed. Sharon R. Yang; Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007)

Artwork Mentioned in We Want to Believe

Geertgen tot Sint Jans, The Resurrection of Lazarus

Masaccio, Expulsion from the Garden of Eden

Additional Resources on The X-Files, Science Fiction, and Religion

Teresa Blythe, “Worthy of Note: Spiritual Lessons from The X-Files,” Sojourners Magazine (July/Aug 2002); alternate link (with an incorrect title)

Chandler Caldwell, “Faith, Film and the Future: A New Millennial Look into Media,” The Catholic Planet: A Worldwide Online Catholic Magazine (1998)

Martin Day, “I Want to Believe: The X-Files and Faith,” in X-Treme Possibilities: A Comprehensively Expanded Rummage through Five Years of “The X-Files” (ed. Paul Cornell, Martin Day, and Keith Topping; London: Virgin, 1998), 467–74; 1997 edition

“Faith and Reason: Introduction,” Books and Culture: A Christian Review (July/Aug 1999)

Karl Giberson, “Editorial: I Want to Believe,” Science and Spirit (July/Aug 2005): 6–7

Danel Griffin, review of “Miracle Man,” Film as Art: Danel Griffin’s Guide to Cinema (

Tenitia Hobson, “Faith and Science in The X-Files,” Loquemur: CBU Honors Journal (2001)

M. S. Mason, “X-Files: Case Closed,” The Christian Science Monitor (May 17, 2002); alternate link

Mythix, the Narrative X-Files: The Imagery

Ruben V. Nepales, “A Catholic at the Multiplex,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 27, 2008 (review of The X-Files: I Want to Believe)

Tom Price, review of The X-Files: I Want to Believe,

Frank Spotnitz, “A Question of Faith,” blog reply, Big Light Mailbag, January 4, 2007

Gregory Wolfe, “Unsolved Mysteries,” Image 11 (Fall 1995)

Additional Resources on The X-Files, Science, and Skepticism

Erich Goode, “Why Was The X-Files So Appealing?” The Skeptical Inquirer 26.5 (Sept/Oct 2002)

Michael Valdez Moses, “Modern Day Frankensteins: The Return of Mulder and Scully,”, August 11, 2008 (review of The X-Files: I Want to Believe)